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Read the following passage:
       If at any one time of my life more than another, I was made to drink the bitterest dregs of slavery, that time was during the first six months of my stay with Mr. Covey. We were worked in all weathers. It was never too hot or too cold; it could never rain, blow, hail, or snow, too hard for us to work in the field. . . . I was somewhat unmanageable when I first went there, but a few months of this discipline tamed me. Mr. Covey succeeded in breaking me. I was broken in body, soul, and spirit. My natural elasticity was crushed, my intellect languished, the disposition to read departed, the cheerful spark that lingered about my eye died; the dark night of slavery closed in upon me; and behold a man transformed into a brute!
— From Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass,
an American Slave, Written by Himself

Step 1: What are the causes of Douglass' suffering? Write your response in the box below:

Step 2: What effect did his stay with Mr. Covey have on Douglass?

When we write about cause and effect, we determine the reasons that something happened and the consequences of its happening.

Have you received an assignment asks you to show the causes and effects of a condition or situation? Do Your Own is a section that can help you get started. We also have some samples of CUNY assignments that ask for cause-and-effect analysis.

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